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The Dispositional Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS) & Translations

Measuring dispositional benign and malicious envy

Envy is a frustrating emotion that can occur when people lack another’s superior quality, achievement, or possession. There are two forms of envy that differ in how people deal with this inferiority. Benign envy entails motivation to invest more effort to be as successful as the other person. In contrast, malicious envy motivates people to level the other person down. Distinguishing between benign and malicious envy allows to disentangle different motivational and behavioral consequences of envy-elicting situations.

The Dispositional Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS) is a measure of dispositional envy designed to assess personality differences in people’s tendency to react with benign or malicious envy towards superior comparison standards. It consists of two subscales with 5 items each.

More information

For information on the scale development and psychometric characteristics of the BeMaS, see:

  • Lange, J., & Crusius, J. (2015). Dispositional envy revisited: Unraveling the motivational dynamics of benign and malicious envy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(2), 284–294.

The raw data and study materials can be found in this OSF project:

A preprint of the paper is available on PsyArxiv:

This site

Here we share the items of the English version of the BeMaS and its translations to other languages. Please contact us if you have questions or feedback about the scale and this website.